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Fig. 3 | Cell & Bioscience

Fig. 3

From: Ferulic acid combined with aspirin demonstrates chemopreventive potential towards pancreatic cancer when delivered using chitosan-coated solid-lipid nanoparticles

Fig. 3

Synergistic effect of ferulic acid (FA) and aspirin (ASP) combination on cell viability and apoptosis. MTS assay was performed to determine the cell viability of a free FA + ASP and b chitosan-solid lipid nanoparticle (c-SLN) encapsulated FA + ASP combination. MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells were treated with free FA (200 µM), with ASP (1 mM) and c-SLN FA (40 µM) with c-SLN ASP (25 µM) individually and in combination for 72 h. Each bar represents the mean percent viable cells measured in three parallel but independent experiments. c MIA PaCa-2 and d Panc-1 cells were treated with c-SLN encapsulated FA (40 µM) with c-SLN ASP (25 µM) for 48 h and stained with Annexin V-PI apoptosis detection kit. e Panc-1 cells were treated with FA (40 µM) with c-SLN ASP (25 µM) alone or in combination for 24 h. The expression of PCNA, MKI67, phospho-RB, and phospho-ERK1/2 proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis. The equal loading was confirmed by using an anti-β-actin antibody. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test post hoc analysis. ***P < 0.001 represents statistical significance of differences between control and treatment group

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