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Table 1 Representative reports describing the importance of actinin-4 in malignant tumors

From: The biological role of actinin-4 (ACTN4) in malignant phenotypes of cancer

Type of malignant tumor Observations
Brain tumors 1. Correlation between histological grade and protein expression of actinin-4 in gliomas [81] 2. Association of actinin-4 with cell migration in gliomas [82] 3. Overexpression of actinin-4 in high-grade astrocytomas [83]
Head and neck cancer 4. Positive correlation between ACTN4 amplification and the histological grade of salivary gland carcinomas. The importance of ACTN4 amplification as a prognostic biomarker in salivary gland carcinomas [35] 5. Positive correlation between invasive classification of oral squamous cell carcinoma and protein expression of actinin-4 [34] 6. Correlation between histological grade and protein expression in thyroid cancer [84]
Lung cancer 7. Utility of ACTN4 amplification as a prognostic biomarker for stage I adenocarcinoma of the lung [50] 8. Overexpression of actinin-4 mRNA in NSCLC [31] 9. Identification of a splice variant of actinin-4 in SCLC as a cancer testis antigen [30]. Utility of a splice variant of actinin-4 in the lung as a prognostic biomarker for high-grade malignant neuroendocrine tumors [33] 10. Expression of actinin-4 in blood samples of patients with NSCLC and utility as a diagnostic biomarker for NSCLC [85]
Breast cancer 11. Identification of actinin-4 as a novel actin-bundling protein, and utility of actinin-4 as a prognostic biomarker for invasive ductal breast cancer [13] 12. Summary of actinin-4 as a translational coactivator in breast cancer [15, 65] 13. Identification of protein–protein interactions between estrogen receptors and actinin-4 [70]
Esophageal cancer 14. Overexpression of actinin-4 according to clinical stage in esophageal cancer [74]
Pancreatic cancer 15. First evidence of ACTN4 amplification in cancer. Identification of actinin-4 overexpression in patients with invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with poor prognosis [24] 16. Clinical utility of ACTN4 amplification as a predictive biomarker for chemoradiotherapy in LAPC [57] 17. Association of actinin-4 with invadopodia in pancreatic cancer [25]
Colorectal cancer 18. Identification of overexpression of actinin-4 in areas of EMT in colorectal cancer [22] 19. Involvement of actinin-4 in the formation of cellular protrusions that are associated with invasion and migration [23]
Ovarian cancer 20. Identification of actinin-4 overexpression in ovarian cancer, and correlation between actinin-4 overexpression and overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer [26] 21. Utility of ACTN4 amplification as a prognostic biomarker in ovarian cancer [48] 22. Accumulation of ACTN4 amplification in high-grade clear cell carcinoma of ovarian cancer [49] 23. Identification of ACTN4 amplification in fallopian tube carcinomas [86]
Bladder cancer 24. Reduced invasive ability with ACTN4 siRNA in bladder cancer cell lines [36] 25. Correlation between histological grade in bladder cancer and actinin-4 protein expression [37]
Prostate cancer 26. Protein complex that includes actinin-4 and androgen receptor in the nucleus. Actinin-4 protein expression is reduced in the nucleus of high-grade prostate cancer [80]
Melanoma 27. Association of actinin-4 with amoeboid-type invasiveness of melanoma cells [87]
Leukemia 28. Identification of the fusion gene MLL-ACTN4 in adult CD10-negative B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia [88, 89]
Osteosarcoma 29. Protein–protein interactions between MTBP and actinin-4 in osteosarcoma [27, 28]