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Table 1 Functions of microRNAs in tumor metastasis

From: The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of tumor metastasis

microRNA Function in tumor metastasis Targets and putative targets References
miR-10b Promotes cell migration, invasion and metastasis TP53, PAX6, NOTCH1, HOXD10 [11, 12]
miR-19a/b Promotes gastric cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis MXD1 [13]
miR-135b Promotes cell migration, invasion and metastasis LATS2, β-TrCP, NDR2, LZTS1 [14]
miR-362-5p Promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and tumor growth and metastasis in vivo CYLD [15]
miR-34a Inhibits cell migration, invasion and lung metastasis of breast cancer cells; suppresses prostate CSCs and metastasis; decreases the production of the chemokine CCL22; disturbs the bone metastatic niche Fra-1, CD44, CCL22, Tgif2 [16, 68, 72, 73]
miR-34c Inhibits cell migration, invasion and lung metastasis of breast cancer cells Fra-1 [16]
miR-135a Inhibits prostate cancer cell migration and invasion ROCK1, ROCK2 [17]
miR-137 Reduces the invasiveness of colorectal cancer cells FMNL2 [18]
miR-145 Attenuates gastric cancer cell migratory and invasive abilities in vitro and suppresses the metastatic cascade in vivo; inhibits the invasion and metastasis of neuroblastoma cells N-cadherin, HIF-2α [19, 20]
miR-1 Affects the cellular organization of F-actin and impairs tumor cell invasion and filopodia formation FN1, LASP1, XPO6 [21]
miR-335 Suppresses cell migration, invasion and metastasis Tenascin C, SOX4 [24]
miR-29c Inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis Collagens, Laminin γ1 [25]
miR-21 Promotes epithelial collective cell migration, invasion and lung metastasis; enhances colorectal cancer cell intravasation TPM1, PDCD4, Maspin, PDCD4 [27, 30, 31]
miR-124 Modulates the intercellular adhesion of leading cells; inhibits EMT in vitro and suppresses intrahepatic and pulmonary metastasis in vivo Integrin β1, ROCK2, EZH2 [28, 55]
miR-105 Destroys the integrity of vascular endothelial barriers to promote metastasis ZO-1 [29]
miR-182 Promotes cancer cell intravasation into the circulation Mtss1, Pai1, Rsu1, Timp1 [32]
miR-520c/373 Inhibits cell invasion in vitro and the intravasation of breast cancer cells in vivo RELA, TGFBR2 [33]
let-7 Inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer cells HMGA2, Snail [34]
miR-296-3p Promotes prostate cancer cell survival ICAM-1 [35]
miR-148b Inhibits multiple steps of tumor progression via the regulation of invasion, resistance to anoikis, extravasation, lung metastasis colonization and chemotherapeutic response ITGA5, ROCK1, PIK3CA/p110α, NRAS, CSF1 [36]
miR-155 Negatively regulates the function of the brain endothelial barrier; promotes TGF-β-induced EMT, tight junction dissolution, cell migration and invasion. Suppresses tumor growth via the regulation of the tumor microenvironment Annexin-2, Claudin-1, DOCK-1, Syntenin-1, c-Maf, Pu.1, Ship1, C/EBPβ, HIF-1α [38, 50, 7678]
miR-214 Suppresses cell migration and invasion in vitro and inhibits liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells in vivo but promotes migration, invasion and resistance to anoikis of melanoma cells in vitro and the extravasation and lung metastasis formation in vivo FGFR1, TFAP2C [3941]
miR-31 Represses local invasion, extravasation and initial survival in distant tissues and distant metastatic colonization ITGA5, RDX, RhoA [42]
miR-25 Inhibits extravasation of prostate cancer cells in vivo αv- and α6-integrins [43]
miR-200s Inhibits EMT but promotes metastatic colonization Sec23a, ZEB1, ZEB2 [44, 52, 53]
miR-122 Promotes metastatic colonization of breast cancer cells PKM2 [45]
miR-149 Inhibits basal-like breast cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and impairs lung colonization in vivo Rap1a, Rap1b [46]
miR-493 Inhibits the settlement of metastasized colon cancer cells in the liver; promotes the death of colon cancer cells IGF1R [47]
miR-148a Inhibits hepatoma cell migration in vitro and pulmonary metastatic colonization in vivo Met [48]
miR-9 Promotes breast cancer cell motility and invasiveness; enhances squamous cell carcinoma CSC expansion and metastasis CDH1, α-catenin [49, 66]
miR-20a Induces EMT and promotes metastasis Smad7 [51]
miR-203 Suppresses cell invasion and EMT in vitro and lung metastatic colonization in vivo SNAI2 [54]
miR-612 Inhibits local invasion and distant metastatic colonization Akt2 [56]
miR-125a Inhibits EMT of ovarian cancer cells ARID3B [58]
miR-424 Promotes EMT TGFBR3 [60]
miR-22 Promotes EMT, invasiveness, stemness and metastasis TET1, TET2, TET3 [64]
miR-199a Endows breast cancer cells with enhanced CSC properties; promotes invasion, angiogenesis and colonization in the case of melanoma FOXP2, ApoE [65, 92]
miR-133a Promotes invasion of CSCs that express high levels of CD133 SGMS2, UBA2, SNX30, ANXA2 [67]
miR-7 Suppresses cell invasion and metastasis; inhibits the ability of breast CSCs to metastasize to the brain SETDB1, KLF4 [69, 70]
miR-33b Inhibits the stemness and lung metastasis of breast cancer cells HMGA2, SALL4, Twist1 [71]
miR-494 Promotes the accumulation of MDSCs in tumor tissues PTEN [81]
miR-101 Augments cancer cell stemness and enhances the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells; inhibits HCC growth, intrahepatic metastasis and distant metastasis CtBP2, ROCK2 [82, 94]
miR-126 Inhibits endothelial recruitment, metastatic angiogenesis and metastatic colonization at distant sites IGFBP2, PITPNC1, MERTK, SDF-1α [83, 84]
miR-126* Suppresses breast cancer metastasis via the inhibition of the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells and inflammatory monocytes SDF-1α [84]
miR-23b Promotes breast cancer cell dormancy in a metastatic niche MARCKS [87]
miR-127/197/222/223 Promotes breast cancer cell quiescence CXCL12 [88]
miR-103/107 Promotes local invasion and liver metastasis DAPK, KLF4 [89]