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Table 2 Summary of CRISPR/Cas9 applications

From: Application of CRISPR/Cas9 for biomedical discoveries

The original application of the CRISPR/Cas, Genome Engineering, has proven to be extremely useful in the investigation of numerous genetic features and the improved creation of transgenic animals. However, the modification of the Cas protein has lead to the development of additional applications including: gene Activation and Repression through the use of effector molecules tethered to inactive Cas9, Functional Screening through libraries of guide RNAs to introduce NHEJ based InDels or through activation/repression dCas9, Inducible Regulation through the use light or chemical induction for more specific control, DNA labeling through fluorescently labeled dCas9, Isolation of specific genomic regions through epitope labeled dCas9 and finally the ability to introduce multiple sgRNAs and or various Cas9 proteins with different PAM site requirements allows for more complicated Multiplexing experimental designs. The power of these various applications is enhanced by their utility both in vitro and in vivo as these techniques have been shown to be effective in a wide variety of cell lines and animal models