Productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and expressions of TLRs. Colons from mock or DSS-treated WT and GHSR−/− mice were collected, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. The final results were expressed as the radio of cytokine concentration to total protein content (A). Moreover, the RNA levels of TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, M-CSF, GM-CSF and IFN-γ were also examined in colons (B). Finally, the innate immune receptors of TLR-2 and TLR-4 were quantified in colon and MLN as well respectively (C). Each bar represents the mean ± SEM; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.005.