Overexpression of Nanog inhibits the Wnt signaling pathway. Real-time PCR analysis of gene expression ((A) Nanog, (B) β-catenin, and (C) c-myc) of the EpSCs in the control, SP-treated group, transduced group, and the combination treatment group. At the protein level, Nanog, c-myc, and total β-catenin were also detected (D). The bands of Nanog and c-myc protein in each group were analyzed quantitatively (E and F). (*P < 0.05) (Con: control; SP: substance P treated group; LV-Nanog: transduced group).