PADI4 induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. (A) GFP-tagged LC3 plasmid was transfected into SMMC-7721 cells, after 24 hours transfection, the cells were incubated with Ad-PADI4. Fluorescence microscope was used to observe the punctate GFP-LC3 in the cytoplasm. (B) The number of punctate GFP-LC3 in each cell of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 was counted and at least 100 cells were included for each group. (C) Electron micrographs was exployed to examine the autophagic vacuoles ultrastructure in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells which PADI4 were overexpressed. Magnification, ×10,000. (D) Western blot was used to analysis the expression of LC3-I and LC3-II in SMMC7721 and HepG2 cells. a-d: SMMC-7721 in different treatment conditions; e: HepG2 treated with Ad-PADI4. GAPDH expression was used as control.