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Table 1 Transcriptional regulation of DNMT promoter activity and/or mRNA expression

From: Dysregulated transcriptional and post-translational control of DNA methyltransferases in cancer

Pathways

Mechanisms

DNMTs mRNA/promoters

References

Down regulation

   

p53

p53/Sp1 transcriptional repression

DNMT1/3A/3B

[32]

RB/E2F

RB/E2F transcriptional repression

DNMT1/3A

[3336]

FOXO3a

Transcriptional repression

DNMT3B

[37]

Up regulation

   

Ras/AP-1

AP1 transcriptional activation

DNMT1

[26, 27, 38]

Sp1

Transcriptional activation

DNMT1/3A/3B

[28, 29, 32]

Sp3

Transcriptional activation

DNMT1/3A/3B

[28, 29]

E2F

Transcriptional activation

DNMT1

[34, 39]

ERK

Unknow

DNMT1/3A

[40]

17β-estradiol

ER-dependent transcription activation

DNMT3B

[41]

Homeobox B3

Promoter binding

DNMT3B

[31]

Wilms' tumour 1

Transcriptional activation

DNMT3A

[30]

Viruse induction

   

LMP1

Activation of JNK/AP-1 pathway

DNMT1

[42]

BKV Tag and E1a

pRB/E2F pathway

DNMT1

[43]

HBx

Promoter transcriptional activator

DNMT1/3A

[44]

HBx

Promoter transcriptional repression

DNMT3b

[44]

HIV-1

Through transcription factor AP-1

DNMT1

[45]

  1. LMP1: latent membrane protein 1.
  2. BKV Tag and E1a: Human polyomavirus BKV large T antigen and adenovirus E1a.
  3. HBx: Hepatitis B virus X protein.
  4. HIV-1: early expressed HIV-1 proteins.