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Table 1 Transcriptional regulation of DNMT promoter activity and/or mRNA expression

From: Dysregulated transcriptional and post-translational control of DNA methyltransferases in cancer

Pathways Mechanisms DNMTs mRNA/promoters References
Down regulation    
p53 p53/Sp1 transcriptional repression DNMT1/3A/3B [32]
RB/E2F RB/E2F transcriptional repression DNMT1/3A [3336]
FOXO3a Transcriptional repression DNMT3B [37]
Up regulation    
Ras/AP-1 AP1 transcriptional activation DNMT1 [26, 27, 38]
Sp1 Transcriptional activation DNMT1/3A/3B [28, 29, 32]
Sp3 Transcriptional activation DNMT1/3A/3B [28, 29]
E2F Transcriptional activation DNMT1 [34, 39]
ERK Unknow DNMT1/3A [40]
17β-estradiol ER-dependent transcription activation DNMT3B [41]
Homeobox B3 Promoter binding DNMT3B [31]
Wilms' tumour 1 Transcriptional activation DNMT3A [30]
Viruse induction    
LMP1 Activation of JNK/AP-1 pathway DNMT1 [42]
BKV Tag and E1a pRB/E2F pathway DNMT1 [43]
HBx Promoter transcriptional activator DNMT1/3A [44]
HBx Promoter transcriptional repression DNMT3b [44]
HIV-1 Through transcription factor AP-1 DNMT1 [45]
  1. LMP1: latent membrane protein 1.
  2. BKV Tag and E1a: Human polyomavirus BKV large T antigen and adenovirus E1a.
  3. HBx: Hepatitis B virus X protein.
  4. HIV-1: early expressed HIV-1 proteins.