Decreased autophagy level augments apoptosis of PA-induced in hepatocytes. (A) Cells were treated with either control or PA for 24h. CQ (10 μM) was added to pretreatment for 8 hours. Western blotting was used for detecting LC3 and cleaved-caspase3 levels. (B) The relative LC3-II/GAPDH was calculated by normalizing their respective levels to the control level in cells. (C) The relative cleaved-caspase3/GAPDH was quantified in the same way. Date were presented as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01). (D) Cells were quantified of the viability using CCK-8 assay after treatment with control or PA for 24h. CQ (10 μM) was also added to pretreatment for 8 hours. Data were repeated in three independent experiments and as the mean ± SEM (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01). (E) Cells were treated in the same way, and then apoptotic cells were quantified by FCM after staining with AnnexinV-FITC and PI. The data represent the mean ± SEM values from three times separately (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01). (F) Atg5 was knocked down with Atg5 shRNA infection in HL-7702 and HepG2 cells, then western blotting analysis were performed. (G) After cultured with control or PA for 24h, normal cells and the transfected cells were used to perform the apoptosis analysis by FCM. The data were expressed as the mean ± SEM values for three independent experiments (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01).