Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Figure 3 | Cell & Bioscience

Figure 3

From: Diabetic macular edema: new concepts in patho-physiology and treatment

Figure 3

Hyperglycemia and its metabolic pathways. Four distinct glucose metabolic pathways are activated by hyperglycemia: Diacylglycerol (DAG)–protein kinase C (PKC), advanced glycation endproducts/ receptor for advanced glycation end-products, Polyol (sorbitol) and Hexosamine pathways. Activation of the metabolic pathways leads microvascular dysfunction, neuronal apoptosis, glial reactivity and component deposition.

Back to article page