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Table 1 Summary of extrinsic factors and their downstream signaling pathways involved in β-cell proliferation

From: Microenvironmental stimuli for proliferation of functional islet β-cells

Extrinsic factors MAPK Akt Ca+2signaling Jak/Stat Smad β-catenin
Glucose     
Insulin/IGF-1     
PRL/PL      
HGF    
TGF      
GLP-1/GIP