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Table 1 Cytokines in tumor microenvironment and effects on tumor progression

From: One cell, multiple roles: contribution of mesenchymal stem cells to tumor development in tumor microenvironment

Cytokines Cellular sources Tumor growth Metastasis Immune response References
IL-1 macrophages, DCs, B cells, NK cells, keratinocytes, tumor cells + +   [25, 26]
IL-2 Th1 lymphocytes -   + [26, 27]
IL-4 Th2 lymphocytes -   + [28]
IL-6 T (mainly Th2) and B cells, keratinocytes and macrophages. tumor cell, fibroblast, endothelial cells +(low concentration)   + [25, 26, 2931]
-(high concentration)
IL-8 tumor cells +    [26]
IL-10 Th cells, B cells, activated monocytes, macrophages, thymocytes, keratinocytes, and tumor cells. + + - [29, 32, 33]
IL-11      
IL-12 APC: monocytes, macrophages, and DCs. tumor cells, neutrophils - - + [26, 3438]
IL-15 macrophages, DCs -   + [39]
IL-18    -   [26]
IFN-α   -   + [40]
IFN-β   -   + [40]
IFN-γ T (mainly Th1)and B cells, NK cells, NKT cells, CTL macrophages, mast cells, DCs -   + [25, 26]
TNF-α activated macrophages, T and B cells, NK cells, tumor cells, neutrophils, fibroblasts, keratinocytes +(low concentration)    [25, 29]
-(high concentration)
TGF-β T and B cells, macrophages, platelets, bone-marrow stroma, tumor cells -   + [25, 41]
M-CSF macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, bone-marrow stroma + +   [25]
GM-CSF respiratory epithelial cells, T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, macrophages, eosinophils, endothelial cells, fibroblasts -    [25]
MIF macrophages, T cells, eosinophils, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, pituitary +    [25]
  1. Abbreviations: +, promote ; —, inhibit.