4-HNE treatment induces NRF2 nuclear translocation. (A) The schematic diagram showing the structures of NRF2 constructs used in the study. (B) Under the untreated condition, EGFP-NRF2 exhibited a mixed pattern of nuclear (arrow), whole cell and cytosolic (arrowhead) distribution. After treatment of 10 μM 4-HNE for 30 min, a predominantly nuclear distribution was observed. Scale bar: 10 μm. (C) Time course of nuclear NRF2 accumulation after 10 μM 4-HNE treatment. *: P < 0.05. (D) Deletion of the KEAP1-binding domain (NRF2ΔN) did not affect 4-HNE induced nuclear translocation of NRF2.