Ligand-activated PPARβ/δ triggered hepatic macrophage infiltration and inflammatory marker production. A) Liver sections were immunostained with an antibody against the F4/80 macrophage marker (brown). Nuclei were counterstained with eosin (blue). Liver tissues were obtained from mice treated without (CTRL; 0.5% CMC; note that olive oil as control gave similar results) or with CCl4 alone or both CCl4/GW501516 for 6 weeks. Eight livers were analyzed for each treatment; one representative example is shown. Scale bar: 100 μm. WT = wild type; KO = PPARβ/δ-null mice. B) qRT-PCR analysis shows mRNA expression of Mip-1 α, Mcp-1, Pdgfbb, Tnf- α, Tgf β1 and F4/80. Results are means ± SEM of triplicate assays (n=6). C) MIP-1α and MCP-1 protein levels determined from whole cell protein extracts isolated from livers after the indicated treatments. WT = wild type; KO = PPARβ/δ-null mice. Means ± SEM of triplicate assays (n=6). * = p<0.05; Student's t-test.