Effect of GW501516-activated PPARβ/δ on CCl
-induced liver fibrosis and PPARβ/δ target gene expression. A) Mouse liver sections stained with hematoxylin/eosin after 6 weeks without (CTRL, vehicle) or with CCl4 or CCl4/GW501516 co-treatment. CTRL: controls treated with 0.5% CMC. Note that olive oil as control gave similar results. WT, wild type mice; KO, PPARβ/δ-null mice. Scale bar: 100 μm. B) Serum alanine aminotransferase levels (left) and liver weight (right) at different treatments. C) Total hepatic triglycerides (left), total free cholesterol (middle) and cholesterol esters (right) levels with different treatments were determined by gas chromatography. Control mice were treated with olive oil. D) qRT-PCR analysis shows expression of (left) Ppar β/ δ and two of its target genes, (middle) Pdk4 and (right) Plin2, in mice treated as indicated. WT, wild type mice; KO, PPARβ/δ-null mice; ND, not detected. Means ± SEM (n=6). * = p<0.05, ** = p<0.01, Student's t-test.